Biomolecular computer can autonomously sense multiple signs of disease

first_img Citation: Biomolecular computer can autonomously sense multiple signs of disease (2011, July 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-07-biomolecular-autonomously-multiple-disease.html Explore further More information: Binyamin Gil, et al. “Detection of Multiple Disease Indicators by an Autonomous Biomolecular Computer.” Nano Letters DOI:10.1021/nl2015872 (PhysOrg.com) — In the future, nano-sized computers implanted in the human body could autonomously scan for disease indicators, diagnose diseases, and control the release of the appropriate drugs. Although this scenario is still several decades away, researchers have been making significant progress in developing early types of biomolecular computers. New sensor nanotechnology simplifies disease detection A simple scheme of how a biomolecular computer works. Image credit: Gil, et al. ©2011 American Chemical Society Copyright 2011 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. In a recent study published in Nano Letters, Computer Science Professor Ehud Shapiro and coauthors from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, have developed a biomolecular computer that can autonomously sense many different types of molecules simultaneously. In the future, this sensing ability could be integrated with a vast biomedical knowledge of diseases to enable computers to decide which drugs to release.“We envision nanometer-sized computing devices (made of biomolecules) to roam our bodies in search of diseases in their early stage,” coauthor Binyamin Gil from the Weizmann Institute of Science told PhysOrg.com. “These devices would have the ability to sense disease indicators, diagnose the disease, and treat it by administering or activating a therapeutic biomolecule. They could be delivered to the bloodstream or operate inside cells of a specific organ or tissue and be given as a preventive care.”The development builds on the researchers’ previous demonstration of a biomolecular computer that consists of a two-state system made of biological components (DNA and a restriction enzyme). The computer, which operates in vitro, starts from the Yes state. In each computation step, the computer checks one disease indicator. If all of the indicators for the tested disease are present, the computation ends in the Yes state, namely it makes a positive diagnosis; if at least one disease indicator is not detected, it ends in the No state.Previously, Shapiro’s group showed that this biomolecular computer could detect disease indicators from mRNA expression levels and mutations. In the current study, the researchers have expanded the computer’s ability to also detect disease indicators from miRNAs, proteins, and small molecules such as ATP. At the same time, the computer’s detection method is simpler than before, requiring fewer components and fewer interactions with the disease indicators.As the researchers explain, sensing a combination of several disease indicators is much more useful than sensing just one, since it allows for better accuracy and greater sensitivity to differences between diseases. For example, they note that in the case of thyroid cancer, the presence of the protein thyroglobulin and the hormone calcitonin can enable a much more reliable diagnosis than if only one of these disease indicators was detected.Although the ability to detect several disease indicators marks an important step toward in vivo biomolecular computers and programmable drugs, there are still many obstacles that researchers must overcome in the process. “The biggest challenge is operating such devices in living surrounding like the blood stream or cell’s cytoplasm,” Gil said. “Currently we are developing devices that rely on simpler machinery (e.g. no restriction enzyme) or on the cell’s own machinery.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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CERN physicists break record for hottest manmade material

first_img The three teams working at CERN, ATLAS, CMS and ALICE are all working on the same basic problem, figuring out what existed just after the Big Bang so as to better understand how matter works at the subatomic level. ATLAS and CMS were recently in the news of course for finding evidence of particles that strongly resemble the notorious Higgs boson. Meanwhile the ALICE team has been hard at work smashing lead ions into one another creating quark-gluon plasma, material that is being described as a primordial soup, because it is believed to be similar to the stuff that came about right after the Big Bang, and because unlike protons and neutrons, they are believed to move around freely, rather than existing as a bound material.The prior temperature record was held by researchers at Brookhaven National Laboratory who got a nod from the Guinness Book of Records for their feat. The new team won’t be getting their listing just yet, because their findings have yet to be finalized. In announcing their results at this year’s Quark Matter conference, they said they won’t have any official numbers for several weeks, though they do expect it to be approximately thirty eight percent hotter than what BNL recorded, which would take it from just over seven trillion degrees Fahrenheit, to almost ten.The team at BNL isn’t sitting on their hands of course, though they can’t compete with the CERN facility in reaching ever hotter temperatures, they have found evidence to suggest that under certain conditions, quark-gluon plasma, which has been observed to behave as a frictionless gas, may morph into a hadron gas, which is considered to be normal matter, similar to the way water morphs into ice or steam, depending on conditions.The ALICE team, who don’t see breaking temperature records as one of their goals, will continue to study the conditions under which quark-gluon plasma comes to exist in hopes of better understanding its properties. The overall plan is that all of the work being done at CERN by the three teams will eventually come together to clear the picture of not just what went on shortly after the Big Bang, but of the very nature of matter. Citation: CERN physicists break record for hottest manmade material (2012, August 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-08-cern-physicists-hottest-manmade-material.html © 2012 Phys.Org Brewing the world’s hottest Guinness Explore further (Phys.org) — Apparently discovering a Higgs-like particle isn’t enough for the physicists working at the CERN facility, now another team working with the LHC has broken the record for the hottest manmade material ever. The old record was about four trillion degrees Celsius, the new one appears to be in the range of five and a half, a bump up of some thirty eight percent. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Wintermute voice assistant makes intro at CES

first_img Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Discussing the project in Las Vegas, Nuance showed how a cross-platform phone and other devices could work with each other as a total platform-agnostic system with the virtual assistant able to serve the user’s questions and commands from one device the next, regardless of device type or operating system. Wintermute can tie together data from multiple devices. The Wintermute aid at the CES show was put to work in a smartphone scenario where the smartphone was asked for a football game score, and then a voice command to a Dragon TV-enabled television was to “Put the game on,” without any mention of the teams that were involved in the phone request. The television began playing the same game, unprompted. The Wintermute demo showed the technology enabled an ability to take a query and understand across platforms. Responses to the Wintermute project showing at CES were favorable to the very idea of being able to tap into a virtual personal assistant from any computer, handset, or tablet. Nuance has clearly seen the role that mobile persona assistants play and believes in the company’s potential to find success in a cloud-based system such as this. (“At Nuance, we’re the people who make voice work,” boasts the company, which is known for its Dragon speech recognition software, where the user talks and the computer types.) Nuance’s Personal Mobile Assistant survey of 1,000 American consumers asked respondents what they were using their personal assistants for. The most common uses were for driving directions, 84 percent; the weather, 72 percent; and restaurant recommendations, 61 percent.Nuance said survey results also showed that over 80 percent of people surveyed would want their mobile personal assistant to travel with them across all of their devices, including phones, tablets, PCs, cars, TVs, and cameras. Citation: Wintermute voice assistant makes intro at CES (2013, January 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-01-wintermute-voice-intro-ces.html (Phys.org)—Nuance, the Burlington, Massachusetts-based company known for its speech technology, is talking up its Project codenamed Wintermute, and is demonstrating the project’s cross-platform, cloud-based virtual assistant. Nuance said it is presenting its cross-device persona project Wintermute at Nuance’s exhibit at the Consumer Electronics Show, to demonstrate “how mobile personal assistants follow you from one device the next, remembering what you like, what you’ve been doing, and where you’ve been. Listening to the game in your car? Your TV will know when you ask to simply “put on the game” just which one you mean.” More information: www.nuance.com/company/news-ro … assistantsurvey.docx © 2013 Phys.org Credit: Nuance Communications Nuance buys British voice-to-text company SpinVoxlast_img read more

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Microscopic messengers from the depths of space

first_img Journal information: Astrophysical Journal The researchers working on the project have recently published important scientific results regarding theUlysses mission and its findings. They extracted the most detailed information on mass, size, and flight direction of the interstellar dust using data from more than 900 particles examined by the spacecraft.”The data from Ulysses that we have now evaluated for the first time in their entirety, are unique,” said Harald Krüger, principal investigator of the Ulysses dust detector at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Göttingen, Germany.The particles, dubbed “messengers from the depths of space,” are constantly invading our solar system as the sun and planets move through the Milky Way galaxy. We are now passing through a giant cloud of interstellar matter, called the Local Interstellar Cloud, the source of these dust particles, which is about 30 light years in diameter. The so-called “stardust” is embedded in the local galactic cloud through which the sun is moving at a speed of 26 km/s. A single dust grain takes 20 years to traverse the solar system.The interstellar dust particles, detected in situ for the first time in 1993 by the Ulysses spacecraft, are very valuable for scientists as they contain crucial information about our more distant cosmic neighbors. The new study confirmed earlier findings, according to which the interstellar dust always sweeps through our solar system in approximately the same direction. The research also revealed precise information about the size of these particles, showing that some are remarkably large, even several micrometers wide, while the majority of the dust particles have diameters ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 micrometers, about one hundredth the diameter of a human hair.According to Veerle Sterken from the University of Stuttgart in Germany, who led the analysis with Krüger, Ulysses’ observational position was optimal to analyze the interstellar dust. Ulysses is the only spacecraft so far that has left the orbital plane of the planets and has flown over the sun’s poles. While interplanetary dust produced within our planetary system is concentrated in the orbital plane, interstellar dust can be measured well outside this plane. The unique orbit of the probe has also enabled studies of gamma-ray bursts that otherwise would not have been possible, and played a major role in discovering soft gamma repeaters, or “magnetars.”The study of the interstellar dust is important for understanding its role in forming celestial objects in the universe. “Stardust” can drive the mass loss when a star is nearing the end of its life, and plays a part in the early stages of star and planet formation. Astronomers estimate that approximately 4.6 billion years ago, the gravitational collapse of an interstellar cloud led to the formation of a protosolar disk, called the solar nebula, with a central condensation developing into our sun.The observations and measurements of cosmic dust in different regions provide an important insight into the universe’s recycling processes. Scientists try to obtain observational “snapshots” of the dust at different stages of its life and, over time, to create a complete movie of the universe’s complicated recycling steps.Ulysses helped to produce a complete movie of this process. The other missions, like Galileo and Cassini—as well as the mission Stardust, which in 2006 returned captured interstellar dust particles to Earth—are perceived by the researchers studying the topic as providing only snapshots of information. Now, the scientists endorse future ESA-led space missions to precisely investigate interstellar dust and help complete the big picture. More information: Harald Krüger et al. SIXTEEN YEARS OF INTERSTELLAR DUST MEASUREMENTS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM. I. MASS DISTRIBUTION AND GAS-TO-DUST MASS RATIO , The Astrophysical Journal (2015). DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/812/2/139 Peter Strub et al. SIXTEEN YEARS OF INTERSTELLAR DUST MEASUREMENTS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM. II. FLUCTUATIONS IN THE DUST FLOW FROM THE DATA , The Astrophysical Journal (2015). DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/812/2/140 Veerle J. Sterken et al. SIXTEEN YEARS OF INTERSTELLAR DUST MEASUREMENTS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM. III. SIMULATIONS AND DATA UNVEIL NEW INSIGHTS INTO LOCAL INTERSTELLAR DUST , The Astrophysical Journal (2015). DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/812/2/141 Explore further Ulysses spacecraft at Jupiter encounter. Credit: ESA/Dave Hardy This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.center_img Dust particles from afar Citation: Microscopic messengers from the depths of space (2015, October 29) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-10-microscopic-messengers-depths-space.html © 2015 Phys.org (Phys.org)—In 1990, an important space probe was launched, tasked with the ambitious mission of orbiting the sun and scanning our star at all latitudes. However, the much-publicized mission was not solar research but the detection of tiny particles from interstellar space. This joint NASA/ESA mission, lasting 19 years, has revealed the properties of the particles originating from interstellar space and has provided new insights on these tiny cosmic visitors.last_img read more

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In the land of cards

first_imgOnce upon a time, there was a prince who was troubled with life’s confusions and the lack of solutions. He sets on a journey to a different land to know more about the world and to experience something new. Joining him on the knowledge quest is his friend, a merchant’s son. But fate had a different plan for the prince; a storm leaves his ship stranded in a strange island inhabited by card puppets. These card puppets have their own set of protocols that are at odds with the real world. The amused prince questions them, observes them and tries to understand how their world works, all along skeptical about changing his own beliefs. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’What happens when men are faced with the herculean inevitability called change?  The answers were the theme of this dance-drama, Land of Cards or Tasher Desh by Rabindranath Tagore.The play was beautifully directed and choreographed by Sushma Seth, depicting the clear message by Tagore that change is inevitable better to accept it as soon as it knocks on the door.  All the artistes lived up to their characters but the most amusing performance was the perfectly synchronised act by the small girls who played the cards.Questions and fears that infects a person’s mind were answered by lyrical dialogues of the play. It was amusing to see how each character perfectly portrayed the confusions and emotional turmoil that many of us go through, while accepting something new.The ending song of the dance drama was a joyous urge to dissolve all rules and formalities – like breaking a dam to usher in water, in this case, to you usher in freedom and new culture.last_img read more

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In the spotlight

first_imgA gallery known for showcasing the works of established and upcoming artists from the world over, Zynna, is now presents Zynna Spotlight Show of the renowned internationally acclaimed artist Rashmi Jain. The exhibition will showcase her creative brilliance through paintings in the specially assigned space in the gallery. Rashmi Jain owned a studio in Mumbai (2005-2011) and executed orders for interior decoration and conducted classes for Murals, Charcoal painting and Oil painting in addition to above art forms.  She had participated in Times Interiors Bandra in 2009 and the culture 2010 exhibitions in World Trade Centre, Mumbai. Also, she was a part of group exhibition in Art Life gallery in Noida. Zynna Art Gallery intends to bring in freshness and vitality to art by experimentation and by exploring and assimilating new mediums, new talents and new creative synergies from the fields of fine art, functional art and design by breaking barriers that separate them.last_img read more

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The screen of excellence

first_imgA retrospective of award-winning films directed by Bengali filmmakers is being organised in the Capital that opens up on 6 September at Banga Bhavan. The two-day event is a collaborative initiative of Government of West Bengal and Doordarshan. The opening day of the event will screen the movie Kaalbela from 10.45 am to 1.45 pm. Directed by Goutam Ghose, this film is set against the background of the Naxalite movement, based on a 1980s novel by Samaresh Majumdar. Following the screening a panel discussion and interaction will be held between renowned directors and film critics. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Nisshabd, directed by Jahar Kanungo will be screened from 3.45 pm to 5.20 pm. The movie was screened at more than 20 international festivals and received six international awards. Critics found the film funny, thought-provoking, and poignant. For the first time an Indian film received accolades for its sound design.Following it another movie called MahulBanir Sereng will be screened from 5.45 pm to 8 pm. The movie is directed by Sekhar Das. The movie won Bengal Film Journalists’ Association Awards (BFJA) – Best Indian Film Awards in ten categories. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe next day of the festival will screen movies like – Elar Char Adhyay, Prohor and The Last Lear. Elar Char Adhyay, directed by Bappaditya Bandopadyay will be screened on 7 September at 12 noon. The movie is based on Rabindranath Tagore’s Char Adhyay. The next movie that will be screened at 3 pm is Prohor, directed by Subhadro Choudhaury, which is a narrative revolving around the relationship between a patient and a nurse. The festival will close with the screening of the movie The Last Lear at 5.30 pm. The film, directed by Rituparna Ghosh, won the National Award of India for Best FeatureFilm in English in 2007.last_img read more

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Stage set

first_imgPIERROT’S TROUPE is going to perform two of its unique and celebrated plays A Private Affair (Hinglish Comedy) and Maulana Azad on June 5 and 13 at Shri Ram Centre.A Private Affair is a comic chaos — revolving around a missing skirt; a bewildered Army Captain, a confused psychiatrist and her doubly confused secretary. Adding more drama to the disorder is a Mumbaiya Bhai — all in a five-star hotel suite. Maulana Azad is the first ever play on Maulana Azad encompassing his life, his times, his scholarship, his secular credentials a great deal. Performed brilliantly by Tom Alter, the play has been rightly billed as the biggest casting coup in the history of Indian theatre. 152 shows to its credit.   Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’In his foreword to Maulana Azad’s book India Wins freedom, Humayun Kabir mentions the Maulana as a ‘wonderful conversationalist’. So is Maulana Azad of the play Maulana Azad.  The play evolves in the backdrop of Maulana Azad dictating notes to Humayun Kabir for his book. While talking about the book, which is largely political, the Maulana often digresses from the subject. As a result, he discusses at length an entire gamut of issues, largely ‘apolitical’ — ranging from White Jasmine Tea to Tajmahal,  music to Mecca and cigarettes to Cheeta Khan.last_img read more

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Saluting our heroes

first_imgThe exhibition titled ‘Shauryanjali’ celebrating the Golden Jubilee of Indo-Pak War of 1965, opened at the India Gate lawns on Wednesday. The exhibition has recreated the battle scene in various sectors beginning from Rann of Kutch to the ceasefire and Tashkent Summit. The NCC enclosure in ‘Shauryanjali’, turned out to be one of the most popular enclosures.  Most of the school children thronged the NCC enclosure and were all praise for it. During the inauguration of ‘Shauryanjali’, the Defence Minister, Manohar Parrikar and Finance Minister, Arun Jaitley heard the briefing of the cadets and appreciated the effort put in by NCC cadets during the 1968 War.  Admiral RK Dhowan, PVSM, AVSM, YSM, ADC, Chief of the Naval Staff also visited the enclosure and had an informal discussion with the cadets. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Arun Jaitley, the Minister of Finance, Corporate Affairs and Information and Broadcasting said that India scored a decisive victory in the War. Jaitley described it as a nostalgic occasion and recalled the overwhelming, emotional and material support that it generated nationwide for the Armed Forces. He said, “the enemy was shown its place by the professionalism of our Armed Forces.”  A special brochure was also released on the occasion. The Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar said that he was deeply influenced by the heroism of Company Quarter Master Havildar (CQMH) Abdul Hamid. He added that this was first major war that India won hands-down. He said a nation that remembers its history and its martyrs is a developed and secure country.  The event was attended, among others, by Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee and Chief of Air Staff Air Chief Marshal Arup Raha and Chief of Naval Staff Admiral RK Dhowan.last_img read more

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People at diabetes risk need to exercise more

first_imgWhile exercise is good for everyone, those with an immediate relative —mother, father or sibling — with Type-2 diabetes need to exercise more than others to derive the same preventive benefit, says a study.The cause of Type-2 diabetes is linked to both genetics and lifestyle. If you have an immediate relative with the condition, the risk of contracting the diabetes is about three times higher. Preventive treatments involve—eating healthier and exercising more. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’For this study, researchers at Lund University in Sweden analysed the effects of exercise in people with increased risk of Type-2 diabetes caused by being immediately related to someone with the disease. The participants consisted of a total of 50 unfit, slightly overweight but completely healthy men in their 40s who, for seven months, exercised regularly at a fitness centre. Half of them belonged to the risk group and the other half served as a control group who did not have relatives with Type-2 diabetes. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe participants were offered three training sessions per week, including a spinning class and two aerobics classes, during which their exercise intensity and energy consumption was measured. The exercise routine for both groups was equally hard, but the group at risk attended more sessions and as a group expended more energy than the control group.After making adjustments to account for the differences, the results showed that both groups benefited from exercising —they all lost weight, reduced their waist size and increased their fitness.  “The difference was that participants from the risk group had to exercise more to achieve the same results as the participants from the control group,” said lead researcher Ola Hansson from Lund University.“We now hope to continue with further studies, including examining whether exercise intensity rather than volume is a crucial factor in determining how the risk group responds to exercise,” Hansson said. The findings appeared in the Journal of Applied Physiology.last_img read more

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