Yet Another New Discovery Shakes up the Human Family Treeby Jerry Bergman, PhDThe human family tree has been shaken up at least four times this year alone, a fact that indicates how fragile and problematic the evidence for human evolution is. Having just completed editing a 400-page book on human evolution, documented with several thousand endnotes, this topic is very much on my mind. The Oct. 14 report in New Scientist opinedHumanity’s ancient family tree is set to be shaken up by fossil skeletons found embedded in rock at a site near Johannesburg, South Africa. They could be from another long lost human cousin. “We have another major hominin discovery,” said Lee Berger at New Scientist Live on Saturday. In the past decade, Berger at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa and his team has [have] discovered not one but two new species of human ancestor.Based on past trends, more discoveries have generally not added to anthropologists’ conceptions of human evolution. Instead, they have have muddied the waters and created new challenges to the original human evolution narrative. This has been true from the time when Darwin proposed details of his own theory of human evolution, twelve years after his 1859 book On the Origin of Species was published. He proposed his theory in his 1871 treatise titled The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. The word “descent” turned out to be accurate, but was not what Darwin intended to say.Darwin intended in this book to document man’s evolution upward from some unknown primate ancestor to modern humans. In other words, he attempted to support what he believed was The Ascent of Man – not man’s descent downwards. We know, however, that genetic degradation is happening due to the accumulation of mutations, as documented by Cornell geneticist, John C. Sanford. The accumulation of mutations causes the descent of humans – i.e., devolution. In his book, Genetic Entropy, Sanford documents the empirical evidence showing that the Darwinian concept of mutation and natural selection cannot create the enormous new amount of genetic information required for macroevolution to occur, much less keep the genome from gradually decaying to the point of species extinction. “Mutational load” is a problem for all species. Could this be part of reason many ‘hominid’ fossils appear to be deformed humans? Instead of being upwardly-progressing primitive human ancestors, could some be deformed humans suffering from an accumulation of mutations that was leading to genetic meltdown and the eventual extinction of that genetic line?Darwin’s views led to many racist depictions of evolutionary “progress” – an “ascent of man” from the apes. Such diagrams have long been known to be false.Australopithecus sediba, 2010Lee Berger had made previous sensational finds. One that occurred in 2010 made international headlines after his then 9-year-old son discovered the remains of what they called “a new species of human in the hills north of Johannesburg. This was Australopithecus sediba, which [the Darwinists asserted] lived around 2 million years ago and appears to be our closest ape-like ancestor.” To call it a “new species” is presumptuous. It must be admitted, though, that this find was remarkable. Instead of a few bone fragments as is typical, they found fossil skeletons from theMalapa cave are so complete that scientists can see what entire skeletons looked like near the time when Homo evolved. Details of the teeth, the length of the arms and legs, and the narrow upper chest resemble earlier Australopithecus, while other tooth traits and the broad lower chest resemble humans.The possibility that the individuals suffered from disease or devolution should at least be considered. That would make it a malformed Australopithecus instead of a new species as Berger claims. This “Missing link found in ascent of man,” which experts say “could rewrite the story of human evolution” has already been problematic, partly due to Berger’s rush to judgment. Negative opinions were voiced by some of his colleagues. For example, Tim White, the renowned paleontologist at the University of California at Berkeley, savaged Berger’s writing in his book, The Official Field Guide to the Cradle of Humankind. White complained that the book was “in many ways worse than useless, given the astonishing density of errors and misleading statements [and its] …pattern of fabrication.” His criticism got personal when he said,Berger’s rise to prominence signals a new era: one of smoke and mirrors, in which style triumphs over substance. In his short career, Berger has not in fact found very much but shows a remarkable ability to inject himself, via funding and publicity, into discoveries made by others.Concerns about Berger’s work go beyond just ignoring the possibility of mutations causing some of the details in the fossils. Admittedly, mutational effects are not easy to determine, given the absence of ancient DNA in old fossils for genetic comparisons, but this difficulty hits both ways. Mutations cannot be easily proven, but they also cannot be easily disproven. What is observed is morphological variation that is influenced by reconstructions from bone fragments, which are often found in disarray. The source of the variations, though, could be due to multiple causes. This could be due to inter-species differences, or intra-species differences: i.e., individual variations, as shown by the fact that all modern humans vary – some greatly. Additionally, some of the variation could be due to mutation-caused abnormalities. One solution would be progress in techniques to find evidence of DNA. Ancient DNA has been found in some Neanderthals and Denisovans, but so far, attempts to extract DNA from Berger’s skeletons have not succeeded. Fortunately, research in this area is ongoing and may help reveal where the fossil finds fit into some known species family.To assume the differences are due to evolutionary “ascent” towards modern humans, as assumed in this case, is irresponsible and another example of seeing the world through evolution-tinted glasses. These “new species” could be either another normal variation of the ape-like Australopithecus or might be, indeed, truly entirely new species. When reading accounts of fossils found in caves, as I hear them relating that some parts look very human and others very ape-like (similar to Australopithecus), my reaction was that maybe some bones found in one general location were human and others were Australopithecus. This possibility, though, is deemed unacceptable, because the Darwinian presupposition blinds most researchers from even considering it. Similar concerns could be raised not only with Australopithecus sediba, but many if not most of the recent ‘mosaic’ fossils that, the finders say, will require rewriting the textbooks.Homo naledi (2013) The next discovery by Berger that he says will force the rewriting of textbooks was described as follows:in 2013, Berger hit the fossil jackpot again, with the remarkable discovery of thousands of bones deep inside the Rising Star cave system also near Johannesburg. These turned out to belong to a new species of tiny, small-brained hominin called Homo naledi. This fossil hominin is transforming our understanding of human evolution, not least because H. naledi lived very recently, around 250,000 [Darwin] years ago, and has a strange mix of modern and archaic features.… The new fossil hominin remains he has discovered … haven’t yet been excavated due to the challenging nature of their location. “It’s a difficult site” … [because] the fossils are embedded in very hard rock.Once again, the mix of modern and ancient characteristics indicates the possibility that the find was a mixture of modern man with some simian creatures. Although finding “thousands of bones” may reduce the likelihood of the concern that the find is a single abnormal individual, it also raises the possibility of a contamination of modern humans with some ape primate. Berger’s assessment that “The large size of the jaw and teeth means that the skeletons don’t belong to the diminutive H. naledi, and they are not A. sebida either,” ignores the possibility that some of the remains may include an abnormally large H. naledi, or A. sebida. Another possibility, as already stated, is that they are another species of the ape-like Australopithecus, or are an entirely new species, and not some ape-human link.Today’s paleoanthropologists know that the fossil record is not progressive, but scattered and confusing, subject to different interpretations. From People of the Past. The Epic Story of Human Origins. San Francisco, CA. Fog City Press. Edited by Göran Burenhult. 2003 pp. 50-51The Major Problem in Interpreting Old BonesDr. Solly Zuckerman, head of the Department of Anatomy at the University of Birmingham in England, and a scientific adviser to the highest level of the British government, studied Australopithecus fossils for 15 years with a team of scientists. He concluded, in blunt British style “They are just bloody apes.” As a result of his long-term research in this area, Zuckerman’s “scorn for the level of competence he sees displayed by paleoanthropologists is legendary.”Consider the problems of interpreting finds like this. A large number of shattered bone fragments, possibly from different animals or even different species, often distorted by the forces of their burial environment, must be removed from their internment, at times their stone encasement, and then reassembled into some meaningful order. Each step in the process is heavily influenced by the evolutionary presumptions of their assembler. That’s why Zuckerman wrote, “the evolutionary inferences we base on structural comparisons are in the end only speculations.” This wise observation—although made almost 50 years ago—is more true today than when it was originally made.References George, Alison. 2019. Lee Berger: We have made another major discovery about early humans. New Scientist, October 14. Sanford, John C. 2014. Genetic Entropy, New York, NY: Feed My Sheep Foundation, Incorporated. George, Alison. 2019. Australopithecus sediba. http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/australopithecus-sediba Berger, L.R., D.J. de Ruiter, S.E. Churchill, P. Schmid, K.J. Carlson, P.H.G.M. Dirks, J.M. Kibii. 2010. Australopithecus sediba: A New Species of Homo-Like Australopith from South Africa. Science, 328(5975): 195-204, April. Thom, G. 2010. “Missing link found in ascent of man.” Herald Sun, p. 17, Friday, 9 April. Thomas, H. 2010. “Fossil warriors won’t call a truce for Sediba.” The Weekend Australian, p. 13, 10–11 April. George, Alison. 2019. George, Alison. 2019. Quoted in Lewin, Roger. 1987. Bones of Contention: Controversies in the Search for Human Origins. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, pp. 164-165. Zuckerman, Solly. 1970. Beyond the Ivory Tower. London, UK: Taplinger Publishing Company, p. 74.Dr. Jerry Bergman has taught biology, genetics, chemistry, biochemistry, anthropology, geology, and microbiology at several colleges and universities including for over 40 years at Bowling Green State University, Medical College of Ohio where he was a research associate in experimental pathology, and The University of Toledo. He is a graduate of the Medical College of Ohio, Wayne State University in Detroit, the University of Toledo, and Bowling Green State University. He has over 1,300 publications in 12 languages and 40 books and monographs. His books and textbooks that include chapters that he authored, are in over 1,500 college libraries in 27 countries. So far over 80,000 copies of the 40 books and monographs that he has authored or co-authored are in print. For more articles by Dr Bergman, see his Author Profile.(Visited 402 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Pamela SmithDTN Progressive Farmer Crops Technology EditorDECATUR, Ill. (DTN) — Waterhemp has just thumbed its nose at another group of herbicides.Waterhemp resistant to Group 15 herbicides (very long chain fatty acid inhibitors) has officially been found in Illinois research plots. It is the first dicot (broadleaf) weed in the world to outmaneuver herbicides within the Group 15 chemical family. While scientists aren’t sure how widespread the issue is, University of Illinois weed scientist Aaron Hager said the discovery is yet another warning to change weed management behaviors now.“Waterhemp has now shown the ability to resist seven different herbicide sites of action,” Hager said. “Farmers have been leaning heavily on the Group 15 herbicides across all crops as they battle resistant weeds. This is another example of how important it is to diversify weed control approaches to keep the effectiveness of this tool,” Hager said.Syngenta has been collaborating with Illinois scientists on their findings and providing important background information, confirmed Dane Bowers, Syngenta’s technical lead for herbicides, and Gordon Vail, Syngenta’s technical product lead on S-metolachlor, one of the Group 15 herbicides.S-metolachlor is the active ingredient commonly sold by Syngenta under the trade name Dual Magnum. It is also found as a component in many popular herbicide premixes.“We feel it is important as a manufacturer to alert farmers to these findings and work alongside weed scientists to keep these herbicides effective as long as possible,” said Vail. “The reality is not any one product or class of chemistry by itself is good enough. We need them all.”Go down through the sites of action commonly used in corn and soybean crops today and nearly all have had some level of resistance confirmed, Bowers added. “This is the age we live in. Resistance to a particular AI (active ingredient) or site of action doesn’t invalidate or devalue that active. It can still be extremely important across a wide geography to control other weed species,” he said.A CRACK IN ARMORWhat makes this discovery unique is the Group 15 herbicides have been fairly resilient. Worldwide, there are only five cases of grass weeds that have been confirmed resistant to very long chain fatty acid inhibitor (Group 15) herbicides. Most of those cases are in wheat and rice. The only confirmed Group 15 resistance in the United States had been in monocot (grass) in Idaho, Washington and Oregon.The Illinois discovery is the first confirmed case in the world in a dicot (broadleaf) weed species and the first case of Group 15 resistance known associated with corn and soybean production, according to the International Survey of Herbicide Resistance (www.weedscience.org).Hager said the resistant populations were found in McLean County and Champaign County. Both populations were already known to be resistant to multiple modes of sites of action — the McLean County population now resists five sites of action and the Champaign County waterhemp population has six-way resistance.Hager said both of the resistant populations demonstrate resistance to all Group 15 herbicides tested, which included S-metolachlor (Dual Magnum), dimethenamid-P (Outlook), pyroxasulfone (Zidua) and acetochlor (Harness, Warrant, Degree and others).“In field trials, we noticed that the level of control with metolachlor was drastically lower than that of acetochlor (Harness, Warrant, Degree and others),” he noted. “It has always been less, but this was dramatically different.”Further field trials and greenhouse studies showed resistance ratios that ranged from 4- to 64-fold among the Group 15 herbicides. However, Hager said that doesn’t mean simply switching to another herbicide within this site of action removes the threat of resistance in this weed species.“This is yet another example of how relying on chemicals alone to control waterhemp isn’t working anymore,” Hager added. “It also means we expect the length of residual control is going to continue to decline.” Group 15 herbicides are also important ingredients in pre-emergence residual programs.ROADS TO RESISTANCEWeed scientists have long warned that new herbicide miracles are not sitting in company pipelines. Bowers and Vail point to Syngenta’s Resistance Fighter program as an example of efforts to educate about the risk of continuously relying on the same weed-control tactics.However, they also agree that the message is deceptively simple in a world where nature keeps evolving. “While this particular example of resistance seems to be limited right now, it is evidence that we need to do things different going forward,” Vail said.“We cannot continue to rely totally on herbicides and expect to be sustainable long term,” he said. “I think in a lot of cases we’re doing the right things, but it is getting more and more difficult for these herbicides to be effective in some of these weed species.”Some key ways to delay herbicide resistance include crop rotation, combining effective herbicides with multiple sites of action and using full rates for all applications in the field. Letting pre-emergence residual products clean up fields early and using postemergence products as a backup, rather than the first line of defense, is also important, Bowers said. Cover crops, tillage and increasing crop competition through narrower row spacings are other tactics to improve odds.Bowers added that products such as atrazine and HPPD-inhibiting herbicides, for example, have had known resistance for years, but remain important tools. “While the discovery with Group 15 resistance in waterhemp is important, we think that addressing it early and being upfront about it is equally important.“There’s a lot more work to be done to find out how or why this has developed in Illinois,” Bowers said. “What we do know is it is critical to use full rates of products and employ multiple tactics to avoid resistance.”SCOUT AND LEARNHager said one clue that resistance may be evolving in the field is if you notice the residual control of the product isn’t holding up.Don’t assume the sprayer skipped if you see a small weed break. Pull a sample. Have it tested for resistance, he said.“Resistance doesn’t happen overnight,” Hager said. “We usually see small weed populations break first. Keeping those weeds from going to seed can go a long way toward helping keep these products useful. And yes, sometimes that means using a hoe.”For a full summary of the weeds and countries that have confirmed resistant to long chain fatty acids: http://www.weedscience.org/…Find more information on Syngenta’s Resistance Fighter program: http://www.syngenta-us.com/…Pamela Smith can be reached at email@example.comFollow her on Twitter @PamSmithDTN(AG)© Copyright 2019 DTN/The Progressive Farmer. All rights reserved.
Tags:#2009 Redux#web#Year in Review At the beginning of this year, analyst firm Gartner released a report that highlights eight up-and-coming mobile technologies which they predict will impact the mobile industry over the course of the next two years. According to Nick Jones, vice president and analyst at the firm, the technologies they’ve identified will evolve quickly and will likely pose issues that will have to be addressed by short term strategies. Editor’s note: This story is part of a series we call Redux, where we’ll re-publish some of our best posts of 2009. As we look back at the year – and ahead to what next year holds – we think these are the stories that deserve a second glance. It’s not just a best-of list, it’s also a collection of posts that examine the fundamental issues that continue to shape the Web. We hope you enjoy reading them again and we look forward to bringing you more Web products and trends analysis in 2010. Happy holidays from Team ReadWriteWeb!The eight technologies identified include the following:Bluetooth 3.0 This is one of the no-brainers on the list. The Bluetooth 3.0 specification will be released this year and devices will start to hit the shelves by 2010. At this point, it’s expected that the 3.0 spec will include faster speeds, reportedly transferring files at 480 megabits per second in close proximity and 100 megabits per second at 10 meters. It will also feature an ultra-low-power mode that Gartner predicts will enable new peripherals, sensors, and applications, such as health monitoring. The technology will be backwards compatible, allowing old devices to communicate with new ones, so there’s no reason for it not take off in the upcoming years. Mobile User Interfaces + Mobile Web/WidgetsMobile user interfaces and mobile web/widgets were listed separately, accounting for two items on the list, but we think they can be lumped together. They all point to how mobile computing is rapidly becoming a new platform for everything from consumer mobile apps to B2E (business-to-employee) and B2C (business-to-customer). (Gartner did not include B2B on their list.) Modern day smartphones like the iPhone, Android, Blackberry, the upcoming Pre, and others deliver better interfaces for browsing the web, thus making it accessible to more people. Widget-like applications, including those that replicate thin client technology, will become more common especially in B2C strategies. Yet the mobile web still has challenges ahead. For example, there are no standards for browser access to handset services like the camera or GPS, the report notes. Location AwarenessLocation sensing, powered by GPS as well as Wi-Fi and triangulation, opens up new possibilities for mobile social networking and presence applications. Technology’s earliest adopters are already familiar with social networks like Brightkite and Loopt which let you reveal your location to a network of friends. But we’re still on the tip of this iceberg. Take for example, the iPhone IM client Palringo, they’re just now adding location services to their application. This allows users to see how far away their contacts are, introducing a whole new dimension to mobile communication. Over the next year or two, this sort of technology is expected to become more commonplace, but it will also raise questions about privacy. Will you want your network of online friends and acquaintances to really know your exact location? Will turning off location awareness signal that you’re up to something sneaky (so asks the suspicious wife, husband, boss, etc.)? As a society, we will have to answer these questions and more in the near future. Near Field Communication (NFC) NFC is a technology that provides a way for consumers to use their mobile phones for making payments, among other things. It’s something that has taken off in many countries worldwide, but certainly not all, and definitely not in the United States just yet. Unfortunately, Gartner predicts that the move towards mobile payment systems will still not occur this year or the next in mature markets like the U.S. and Western Europe. Instead, NFC is more likely to take off in emerging markets. Other uses of the technology, such as the ability to transfer photos from phone to digital photo frames, will also remain elusive to more developed markets. 802.11n & Cellular Broadband802.11n, a specification for wireless local area networks (WLANs), initially gave us pause. Although not ratified as an official standard yet, the technology is already commonplace. However, until it “goes gold” so to speak, it won’t really infiltrate the mobile world. Even the ubiquitous iPhone only supports 802.11 b/g at the moment. On the flip side, the other Internet connection technology, cellular broadband, has the potential to make Wi-Fi almost unnecessary, at least for achieving high speeds. In addition to mobile phones, laptop makers will likely continue to incorporate this technology into their netbooks and notebooks using modern chipsets that provide superior performance to our current crop of add-on cards and dongles.Display Technologies Display technologies will also see improvements in the upcoming years. New technologies like active pixel displays, passive displays and pico projectors will have an impact. Pico projectors – the tiny portable projectors we saw being introduced at this year’s CES – will enable new mobile use cases. Instant presentations in informal settings could become more common when there isn’t large, cumbersome equipment to set up. The different types of display technologies introduced in 2009 and 2010 will become important differentiators between devices and will impact user selection criterion, says Gartner. For more information on these above technologies, you can read through the full report available here on Gartner’s web site. Feel free to share your thoughts in the comments on how you think the mobile space will be impacted in the future. sarah perez Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting Related Posts 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market
PBA IMAGESCharles Rhodes took charge in the fourth period and helped San Miguel clinch the top two seed in the 2017 PBA Commissioner’s Cup with a 112-101 victory over GlobalPort Friday at Smart Araneta Coliseum.The enigmatic reinforcement unloaded 19 of his 34 points in the payoff period, wile also hauling down five rebounds and two assists to quash the Batang Pier’s belated rally.ADVERTISEMENT MOST READ LATEST STORIES BREAKING: Cop killed, 11 hurt in Misamis Oriental grenade blast Filloil: Arellano slips past St. Benilde Cayetano dares Lacson, Drilon to take lie-detector test: Wala akong kinita sa SEA Games Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’ Palace: Duterte to hear out security execs on alleged China control of NGCP “I told the boys that this is the start of our best-of-three series. I’m glad that they responded and we now have one going to the quarterfinals,” said Austria, as San Miguel braces for a date against either Alaska or Phoenix.GlobalPort dropped to 4-7 and reeled to the eighth-seed playoff, either again the Aces or the Fuel Master, depending on the result of the second game. The knockout game is slated on Sunday at Mall of Asia Arena.Justin Harper topped the Batang Pier with 25 points and 12 rebounds, while Stanley Pringle chipped in 21 markers, nine boards, and five assists.Terrence Romeo had 21 points, seven assists, and six boards, and Bradwyn Guinto had 11.Aside from those four, coach Franz Pumaren had little to no support from the rest of GlobalPort in its last elimination game.ADVERTISEMENT Every 18 seconds someone is diagnosed with HIV “I’m happy to see for the first time that our import didn’t get to early foul trouble,” said coach Leo Austria of Rhodes.Chris Ross added 17 markers, seven assists, six boards, and two steals, while June Mar Fajardo came off the bench and registered 15 points, eight rebounds, and three dimes despite playing through his stiff neck.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutAlex Cabagnot nabbed a double-double of 13 markers and 10 boards, while Marcio Lassiter and Arwind Santos both wound up with 13 points each.Finishing the eliminations with a 9-2 card, the Beermen have secured a twice-to-beat edge in the quarterfinals but they still await their playoff seeding depending on the Ginebra-Mahindra duel. BREAKING: Cop killed, 11 hurt in Misamis Oriental grenade blast Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss PLAY LIST 02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games The Scores:SAN MIGUEL 112 – Rhodes 34, Ross 17, Fajardo 15, Cabagnot 13, Lassiter 13, Santos 13, Reyes 4, Tubid 3, Heruela 0, Espinas 0.GLOBALPORT 101 – Harper 25, Pringle 21, Romeo 21, Guinto 11, Anthony 9, Pessumal 5, Cortez 4, Ababou 3, Grey 2, Forrester 0, Pennisi 0, Maierhofer 0, Mamaril 0, Paredes 0.Quarters: 32-21, 51-46, 77-72, 112-101.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Pagasa: Storm intensifies as it nears PAR BSP survey: PH banks see bright horizon amid dark global recession clouds View comments
“We knew that the Yahoo-Twitter partnership would be comprehensive and more encompassing than Twitter’s search partnerships with Google and Bing, but now Yahoo tells us the integration will focus on three primary areas: Spam vs Mahalo: Matt Cutts Explains the Difference Comic response from SEO Black Hat: mvolpe HubSpot TV is LIVE every Friday at 4:00 p.m. ET. From HubSpotter Christopher Haddad – #HubSpotTV Citibank never called or warned Fabulis at all inbound marketing will pay off ), Karen Rubin (@ How to interact on Twitter: Include #HubSpotTV in your tweets! On the show today is Mike Volpe (@ Citibank Freezes Some Fabulis Assets Doin’ It Wrong Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlack Citibank apparently froze the assets of Fabulis because of “objectionable content” on the company blog. “Starting Monday, Bravo will begin offering Foursquare players badges and special prizes when viewers visit more than 500 Bravo locations. Locations will be picked by Bravo to correspond with select Bravo shows including “The Real Housewives,” “The Millionaire Matchmaker,” “Top Chef,” “Kell on Earth,” “Top Chef Masters” and “Shear Genius.” . karenrubin Matt Cutts (head of Google anti-spam team): “When trying to decide if a page is spam, it is helpful to ask yourself this question: if I remove the scraped (copied) content, the ads, and the links to other pages, is there anything of value left? If the answer is no, the page is probably spam.” Ability to update status from Yahoo Question from Inbound.org Marketing Takeaway Closing to learn how to use inbound marketing to generate leads and break your dependence on programs with recurring expenses. , and chat ) and Coleen Coyne (@ www.hubspot.tv Marketing Takeaway Intro Special Guest, Olympic Gold Medalist Colleen Coyne Download the free video Fabulis is an established company with investors ($625K) and an experienced entrepreneur as founder (Jason Goldberg – SocialMedian and Jobster), but they are “the social network that helps gay men connect with amazing experiences nearby and around the world” : Cheating does not work. Don’t spam Google, and don’t rely on PPC alone. Do the hard work and Video: How to Get Off the Google AdWords PPC Crack Marketing Takeaway Headlines Should Mahalo Say “Mahalo” to Google for Tolerating Spam SEO guru Aaron Wall gets upset that Mahalo is stealing his content, not adding value and still ranking in Google. : Aggressively communicate with customers and be available for comment quickly. This will help problems from spiraling out of control. Although this deal will help put Foursquare in front of millions of mainstream television viewers, it also offers the company a chance to try to blur the lines between traditional television media and mobile experiences. Although some television executives have been successful integrating TV and the Web, merging TV with mobile has proved to be more difficult. Episode #81 – February 26, 2010 Dennis Crowley, Foursquare’s chief executive, said the company was excited to work with Bravo and push some of these boundaries further. “Bravo’s shows really overlap with our users and a new mainstream audience that we want to reach. I don’t think check-ins are a nerd-only experience. It’s about sharing content and experiences with others.” : If you are not Jason Calcanis, you need to create original and valuable content to rank in search . Twitter Goes Yahoo How many times should a keyword appear on a page for optimal density? , it’s going to work out in the end. There might be some bumps along the way, but the satisfaction of knowing you gave it a truly honest effort will be rewarding in and of itself. Additionally, you will definitely gain a following. There is no reward without risk, and there is definitely a market for authenticity.” March 19: HubSpot goes to Vegas! Access to your Twitter feed on Yahoo with us via Twitter using NEW hashtag, All old episodes are in iTunes: : Keep doing inbound marketing. Developments like this just make it more effective. Bravo to Foursquare as They Partner with Traditional TV Media Olympic athletes’ social media restrictions : Making trades is better than paying cash for advertising. Get creative! (Episode Length: 26 minutes, 41 seconds) “If you are honest in your approach to Forum Fodder Foursquare Teams With Bravo TV Watch the show in real-time at PPC is like liposuction Does Citibank Suffer From Homophobia Or Just A General Dislike For Startups? Learn how to break your Google AdWords addiction! . Ben Robbins – For several years now, good sources at Google (like Matt Cutts) have indicated that keyword density carries little or no importance in their algorithm. Keyword-related factors that are still considered include anchor text for editorial links, page title, page URL, and heading tags. They also seem to reward pages with lengthier content, maybe 500+ words, and long tail keyword variations. Marketing Tip of the Week http://itunes.hubspot.tv ColleenCoyne Marketing Takeaway creating content Details: The Yahoo-Twitter Partnership – ) Yahoo Search and media integration Originally published Mar 5, 2010 2:30:00 PM, updated July 04 2013 Why I Would Hire Bode Miller as My Inbound Marketer
Twitter interface is the integration Check out this video of the new Twitter.com: While many other subtle changes have been mentioned of images and videos in streams. Twitter is partnering with DailyBooth, DeviantART, Etsy, Flickr, Justin.TV, Kickstarter, Kiva, Photozou, Plixi, Twitgoo, TwitPic, TwitVid, USTREAM, Vimeo, yfrog, and YouTube to display content from these services directly on Twitter.com. Twitter just became a little more like Facebookand other social networks with the incorporation of multimedia into user streams. However, Twitter is still a different type of network and users interact with each in different ways. Twitter is about discovering new people and information. By adding multimedia into the new design, Twitter.com reinforces the need for marketers to become content creators. These changes demonstrate that text isn’t the only method for telling a story online. Originally published Sep 15, 2010 11:10:00 AM, updated October 20 2016 Marketing Takeaway about the new Twitter.com, from watching the video Twitter produced, it is clear that the service is growing up and that these changes set the foundation for future plans to generate revenue and increase engagement for users and marketers. What do you think of the new look of Twitter.com? As a marketer using Twitter and other social media sites to interact with customers, it will be important to create interesting multimedia content and distribute it via services, like those the Twitter media partners listed above, to ensure that content is easily consumed on Twitter and other social networks. Twitter.com Topics: users will soon be using a new interface. Yesterday, the company announced that a new design for Twitter.com will roll out to users over the next couple of weeks. As you can see from the screenshots and video below, besides design changes, the major improvement to the new Twitter Updates Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlack
Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlack Originally published Dec 3, 2010 1:30:00 PM, updated July 28 2017 Facebook Reach If your business is using Facebook as a part of its inbound marketing strategy, then it is likely that a goal of your marketing team is to expand your reach by attracting more people to like your Facebook page . For a long time marketers have faced a challenge in inviting new users through Facebook. While they have been encouraging people to visit their Facebook Fan Pages , it hasn’t been easy to do the reverse–get email addresses into Facebook and send invitations through Facebook’s messaging system.This process has now changed. This week, Facebook has enabled business page administrators to import email addresses into Facebook to invite people to like their page. Check out the rest of this post for a walkthrough of these process! Step 1: Go to your Facebook Business Page and click “Edit Page” Step 2: Click on “Marketing” and then select “Tell your Fans.” Step 3: Upload your email list and invite fans.Have you used this feature to tell more people about your Facebook page? Topics:
released this month by the Pew Internet & American Life Project, 92% of adults use search engines, with 59% using one on a typical day. But what’s most compelling is that, despite the significant growth in social media usage over the past several years, search and email are still on top as the most popular online activities. According to data SEO Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlack has really boomed since 2004, when only 11% were using social networks. That figure has more than sextupled to 69% in 2011. using social networks Young, Educated, Wealthy Most Apt to Use Search Marketing Takeaway With search and email still topping the list of the most popular online activities, marketers must be sure not neglect these important channels just to take advantage of the rise in popularity of social media. Remember, The rates of online adults performing most common online activities have remained fairly stable since 2002, with email use increasing 8% from 85% that year. Getting news online and buying products online have also moderately increased since 2002. There are no significant differences in search use by gender or ethnic background. However, search is most popular among the youngest adult internet users (those ages 18-29), 96% of whom use search engines to find information online. But even among the oldest internet users (age 65+), 87% are search engine users. However, the rate of online adults These same groups: young adults, the college-educated, and higher income adults, are also the most likely to use search engines daily. Discrepancies in daily search are much greater than discrepancies in overall search. For example, 75% of college graduates perform daily search, about 2.6 times the 29% of those with less than a high school diploma; and 78% of the wealthiest online adults use search engines daily, which is roughly double the 38% of those without a high school diploma. Originally published Aug 11, 2011 8:00:00 PM, updated October 20 2016 In addition, adults who have attended college (96%) and the highest income adults (98%) make more use of search engines to gather information online when compared with other adults. The widest discrepancy exists between college educated adults and adults with some high school education (81%), who are about 16% less likely to use search engines. successful internet marketing strategies leverage various tactics, channels, and platforms, including social media, email marketing, and SEO. Make sure your marketing strategy has a healthy mix of multiple channels and isn’t relying too much on just one strategy. Topics: Are you leveraging your long-tail keywords and your in-house email lists to maximize the results of your inbound marketing program?
Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlack Originally published Oct 27, 2011 3:00:00 PM, updated October 20 2016 News related to Google+ has been slow in recent months. Hopefully, Google is working on business profiles for its social networking platform. However, today we got some exciting news. Not as exciting as business profiles, but close. According to Google, to date, 1 billion posts have been shared on Google+.Google+ has also launched three new features. The first is a new tool called Ripples that visualizes how messages are being shared on Google+. The second, What’s Hot, helps users discover interesting and popular posts. Finally, Google+ has added Creative Kit, which introduces basic photo-editing functionality into Google+. Additionally, Google today announced that customers of Google Apps can now use their Google Apps username and password to sign up for Google+.Sharing Analytics Gets VisualWith Ripples, Google has added a visual layer of explanation around social sharing analytics. Ripples enables inbound marketers to see how their content is shared and which influencers help drive the most sharing activity. Trying to explain it doesn’t do it justice. You need to watch the video below to really understand Ripples in action.Trending Posts Comes to Google+Parody is rampant in the social networking industry. Twitter and Facebook have long helped users discover popular or trending topics in addition to most recent posts. The new ‘What’s Hot’ section on Google+ will appear after your regular updates section and use a special Google algorithm to rank popular stories. For a full explanation, check out the following video:Google+ Gets More Like InstagramWith Creative Kit, Google for the first time provides the opportunity for users to edit images in Google+. This makes Google+ much more similar to popular photo sharing service, Instagram. To view Creative Kit in action, check out this video from Google:Google Apps Users RejoiceMany companies and individuals use Google’s Apps product for a hosted version of popular Google apps like Gmail and Google Documents. As of today, Apps users can now sign up for Google+ using their Apps account. According to TechCrunch, Apps users will be able to share posts directly to other users within their organizations. Google is also building a migration tool, allowing existing Google+ users to port their personal accounts over to their Apps accounts. It isn’t done just yet, but Google says it will be in a few weeks.Marketing TakeawayThese new features are cool, but they aren’t exactly original. Marketers still need business profiles more than any of the new features Google announced today. However, take advantage of what Google provides. Ripples are clearly the most interesting feature for marketers. Understanding how your content is shared and who the top influencers are that cause the spread of your content is valuable. Look at Ripples for some of your content and gather data to improve your content creation and promotion efforts.How do you feel about these updates to Google+? Google Updates Topics:
Originally published Sep 9, 2013 11:00:00 AM, updated February 01 2017 Blog Optimization Add any new best practices that have emerged (and remove “best practices” that are no longer so). Every once in a while, things need to be updated. Your mailing address, your wardrobe, your hairstyle, your media collection. Things get outdated, stale, and irrelevant — it’s just the way of our constantly changing world.Unfortunately, your marketing content is no exception. Over time, what once was an accurate, fresh piece of content becomes, well … not so much.Luckily, just like it’s easy enough to change your address, go shopping for stylish new clothes, get a brand new haircut, or buy new music, it’s also pretty easy to update your content. And doing so can help you extend the life of your popular, high-performing content as well as save you the time and resources from creating content from scratch. Not too shabby, huh?So sit back, read on, and learn all about how you should approach and execute the process of updating and republishing your outdated blog content. Your blog readers will thank you for it.Updating Old Content? Why Bother?If you’ve been blogging for a while, I’m willing to bet you’ve got some old, stale content lurking in the shadows of your blog. But why should you care? That stuff is buried deep in the depths of your blog, and no one is going to see it anyway. Right?Wrong.As you probably know, one of the main benefits of blogging is the search engine optimization (SEO) value it provides. In fact, earlier this month, I analyzed traffic to this very blog and found that in July 2013, 69% of the blog post visits we received in July were to blog posts published prior to July. That’s a lot of traffic. And it makes sense considering that 45% of the traffic to our blog in July came from organic search. This means that any given moment, someone could stumble upon a blog post you wrote months (even years) ago that ranks well in search. This is one of the biggest advantages of blogging — content that continues to drive results in terms of traffic and leads over time. But if that searcher doesn’t bother to check the date/time stamp on that blog post, they might have no idea they’re reading outdated and possibly inaccurate information. Yikes. Okay, that’s one good reason. The other reason is that not everyone who is reading your blog now, was reading your blog months and years ago. And even if they were, it also doesn’t mean they read every single article you published. By updating and resurfacing some of your older yet high-performing evergreen posts, you can extend the life of your best blog content as well as increase the results it continues to achieve over time.Finally, it’s often much easier and quicker to update and republish an old post than it is to write a new post from scratch. While I wouldn’t recommend you do this for every post you publish — you should still be publishing lots of new, original content — this is a great way to shave some valuable time off your content creation efforts while still maintaining a consistent publishing frequency. How to Choose Which Posts to UpdateOkay, hopefully now I’ve convinced you of the value of updating and republishing updated blog content. But what’s your plan of attack? How should you decide which posts are worth it to resurface? Here are some important variables to consider:1) Identify your top-performing posts.Let your analytics be your guide here. In general, focus on posts that are backed by some good-looking metrics, such as:Inbound Links: According to our resident SEO expert Rebecca Churt, this is the most important metric to look at, since it is most indicative of search authority. Which of your posts have a lot of inbound links?Traffic: My recommendation is to look at your blog analytics, and specify the last full month as your time frame. (HubSpot Customers: Look in Page Performance.) Which old posts are still generating a lot of traffic for you? Social Shares: The number of social shares a post has generated is also a good indicator of a high-performing post — particularly since social shares factor into search rankings, too. To determine how many social shares a post has, enter its URL into LinkTally.com, a free tool created by HubSpot Social Media Scientist Dan Zarrella that tells you how many times a URL has been shares on Facebook, LinkedIn, Google+, and Twitter. Keywords: Use updating and republishing content as a way to support your keyword strategy. Are there certain keywords you’re trying to rank better in search for? Use a keyword (like HubSpot’s Keywords tool or Google Analytics) to identify keyword ranking opportunities. Do you have any posts that already rank for these keywords? Could you improve their ranking positions?2) Consider content relevancy and trending topics.In addition to a metrics-driven selection approach, you should also consider content relevancy and trending topics. In fact, depending on your content strategy and marketing goals, updating content for the sake of these two variables may actually trump a metrics-driven approach from time to time. For instance, we recently found that a lot of our prospects and customers were asking questions about local search. While we’d already published a post about this very topic, it had become a little outdated (and buried on our blog). Rather than create a new post from scratch (and risk rubbing Google the wrong way with duplicate content), we decided to update and republish that original post — even thought our metrics may not have indicated it was a good target for updating.Best Practices for Updating and Republishing PostsOkay, once you’ve identified the posts you want to update, it’s time to actually update them! Here are some best practices to consider.1) Use the same post, and keep URL the same.Rather than publishing an additional article on your blog — which could result in a ding from search engines for duplicate content — modify the original article. Because this article is live, I usually copy/paste the post into a new draft, make my changes there, and then copy/paste the HTML back into the original post when I’m ready to re-publish the original article (more on that in just a minute). While you may be tempted to update the post’s URL slug, it’s important to keep the URL the same, even if your software automatically creates a redirect. Redirects will remove some of the link value, so it’s best to just keep it as is.2) If you change the title, keep keywords.If you feel compelled to update the post’s title, try to avoid changing it drastically from the original. While the URL is more important to keep the same than the title, if you really need to change the title, do your best to keep your keywords in there.3) Add an editor’s note for transparency.It’s a great idea to add a little editor’s note at the bottom of your updated post — if for no other reason, then for transparency’s sake. This is particularly a good idea if your post has accumulated a lot of comments; your readers will be confused if the publish date is current, but there are comments from months or years ago. Here’s an example of what we typically include at the end of our republished posts:4) Update the content for accuracy.Yup. The name of the game here is accuracy. Over time, there are quite a few things about a piece of content that can get stale and out of date. Evaluate the post for accuracy and determine what needs to be modified, added, or removed. The first thing I usually do is delete any parts of a post that are no longer relevant, and add headers for new sections that need to be added or replaced. Then I go through the post in its entirety to fill in the blanks and make my changes. Here is a checklist of things you should keep in mind as you’re updating your content: Topics: Update the post’s call-to-action (CTA). Evaluate whether your CTA’s offer is still the best option for this post. Do you have a better article? Is the CTA’s creative out-of-date?5) Optimize the post’s meta description.Review the post’s meta description. Is it still accurate? Can you update it to make it a little catchier? Remember, meta descriptions don’t affect the ranking of your content, but they can impact its clickthrough rate from search. Make sure your meta description is both an accurate reflection of what’s within the post, and enticing enough to get searchers to click through to your content from search results.6) Republish it! Yay! By now, you should have an awesomely updated piece of content that’s ready for publishing. While the process of actually publishing your content will vary depending on the blogging software you use, I’m going to share some tips for doing it using HubSpot’s Blogging tool.Replace the old content with new content. This will probably be the same no matter what software you use. Like I mentioned, I usually copy/paste the HTML from my new draft to replace the copy in my original article.Wait until you want to publish the “new” post to update its date/time. If you’re using HubSpot’s new Blog COS, you’ll want to wait until the specific date/time you want the post to appear on your blog homepage to click “update.” Changing it to a date/time in the future will result in a 404 error for those who stumble upon the article in search before the newly designated publish date/time (not a good thing if your article already ranks well in search results).Send a manual email to instant subscribers. If your blogging software is (or is like) HubSpot, it will only trigger the automatic email notification to subscribers for a post once. This means that if you’re just changing the publish date/time on an already-live article, the email will not get triggered again. However, if you’re using HubSpot’s new Blog COS, there’s no stopping you from creating a manual notification email in HubSpot’s Email tool and sending it to your instant subscriber list. If you use the same template you use for your automatic emails, your subscribers won’t even be able to tell the difference. Plus, you can use the opportunity to run an A/B test!7) Track the before/after performance.Okay — maybe I got a little bit ahead of myself. Before you publish your new post, it’s a good idea to create a record of the post’s “before” stats. That way, you can compare it to the post’s performance after you’ve republished it to understand how your update affected its overall performance. Over time, this might also give you a better idea about which posts are worth targeting for updates. The following are the data and stats I keep track of before and after I republish:Post’s Title (in case I tweak it for the republished version)Post’s URL (just so I have the information in one place)Before/After Publish DatesBefore/After Number of Comments Before/After Number of Inbound Links Before/After Number of Social Shares (e.g. Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Google+, etc.)Before/After Post Views (use the month before and the month after as a proxy)Before/After New Contacts/Leads Generated (use the month before and the month after as a proxy)Before/After Keyword Rankings Are you incorporating updated blog posts into your blogging strategy? Share your tips and experiences in the comments below. Remove content that is no longer relevant. Update outdated copy. Check and replace internal links (particularly if there are now better resources or lead gen offers for you to link to). Update screenshots if things have changed (this is particularly important for step-by-step guides, etc.). Replace outdated data/stats with fresher, more timely ones. Add new, fresh examples or replace outdated ones. Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlack