We provide a scientific rationale for the astrobiological investigation of Mars. We suggest that, given practical constraints, the most promising locations for the search for former life on Mars are palaeolake craters and the evaporite deposits that may reside within them. We suggest that Raman spectroscopy offers a promising tool for the detection of evidence of former (or extant) biota on Mars. In particular, we highlight the detection of hopanoids as long-lived bacterial cell wall products and photosynthetic pigments as the most promising targets. We further suggest that Raman spectroscopy as a fibre optic-based instrument lends itself to flexible planetary deployment
The sports world’s eyes will turn to Indianapolis this Sunday for the Super Bowl XLVI, which will feature a rematch between prominent East Coast teams the New England Patriots and the New York Giants. Several students plan to make the short trip to Indianapolis and participate in Super Bowl festivities before the game begins Sunday evening. Freshman Kayla Polcari said she and her sister, senior Annie Polcari, decided to spend the weekend in Indianapolis after they received tickets to the Super Bowl as a surprise gift. “The best dad in the world surprised me with them,” she said. Seniors Christina Carson and Michael Oliver said they are also driving to Indianapolis with a group of friends to experience the events in Super Bowl Village, though they do not have tickets to the game. “We’re going downtown for the concerts in Super Bowl village, like Darius Rucker, LMFAO and O.A.R., and they’re all free,” Carson said. The concerts begin Thursday evening and continue through Sunday. Carson and Oliver said they expect Saturday night’s CMT Crossroads Pepsi Super Bowl Fan Jam concert to be the highlight of their weekend. “We also somehow won tickets to the Crossroads concert at the Pepsi Coliseum with Steven Tyler and Carrie Underwood, so I’m really excited for that,” Oliver said. Though they plan to visit Super Bowl village, Carson and Oliver said they will come back to South Bend in time to watch the game with other students. Oliver, a Patriots fan, will be set against students like Polcari who will cheer for the Giants. “I’m so excited for the Giants win,” she said. Freshman Rachel Miceli, of Queens, New York, said her decision to cheer for the Giants was painful since her true loyalties lie with the New York Jets during the regular season. “I usually hate the Giants, but not as much as I hate the Patriots,” Miceli said. “I guess it comes down to the Giants being a New York team, so I’m supporting them.”
Ocean Scientific International Ltd (OSIL) has recently released a new Microplastics Sampler for the collection of water samples for the analysis of microplastics.“Microplastics” refers to plastic particles smaller than 5 mm and includes fragments, films, pellets/nurdles, granules/beads, filaments and foams.The Microplastics Sampler from OSIL is a large-volume water sampler that allows researchers to collect and characterise suspended and sinking particles in the water column.The sampler collects 50 litres of water in a single sample and upon recovery the device remains upright on deck to allow dense particles to slowly sink to the bottom. The upper 5 litres can be drawn off to be sampled for positively buoyant plastics, with the next 40 litres slowly drained through a tap for neutrally buoyant materials. The bottom section of the water bottle, containing the remaining 5 litres of water and the dense plastic particles can then be disconnected from the main body. This lower section can then be analysed in the laboratory where the flat bottom of the chamber offers an excellent backdrop for photographing/ and or subsampling using a wide-bore pipette for further analysis.
The star point guard dazzled on the court with an endless flurry of 3-pointers and nifty passes. His team forced turnovers and pushed the pace toward easy baskets. And its opponent appeared dazed as it slogged up the court.It sounded like just what anyone would expect between the Western Conference’s worst (Lakers) and the Western Conference’s best (Golden State Warriors). Except it wasn’t The Lakers secured a surprising 112-95 victory over the Warriors on Sunday at Staples Center by doing something they could not pull off in their previous three regular-season games. Then, the Lakers lost by an average of 24.3 points.“Our guys played about as hard as they played all season long,” Lakers coach Byron Scott said. “It was the best game we played against the best team.” “Bigs tend to be lazy defensively, especially in transition because it’s hard for bigs to run the floor and get into the paint,” Bryant said. “The problem is you’re coming back and protecting the paint and Draymond Green is pushing the ball. So now you’re back in the paint. But all of a sudden, boom, here comes a dribble handoff with Steph and there’s nobody there.”The Lakers did not need to worry about that from happening. Instead, the Lakers (13-51) played like a championship contender while the Warriors (55-6) played like a lottery team. The Lakers forced 17 turnovers, while posting 46 points in the paint. Seven players cracked double digits in scoring, including Clarkson, Russell, Bryant, Brandon Bass (13 points), Nick Young (13 points), Julius Randle (12 points, 14 rebounds) and Marcelo Huertas (career-high 10 points and nine assists). Scott called Huertas the game’s “MVP.” Perhaps the 12:30 p.m. start against an inferior opponent lulled the NBA defending champions into complacency. Perhaps the Lakers responded to Scott’s pre-game speech where he was “almost challenging their manhood.”“Every now and then, you’re probably going to have a little complacency,” said Scott, reflecting on his time with the Showtime Lakers. “One thing that you always want to try to guard against when you’re playing lesser opponents, you don’t want to have that letdown. But it might create another run for them.”Russell feared that run would happen any moment until Warriors coach Steve Kerr yanked his starters with 4:37 left. Scott reported only feeling comfortable until the final minute. But before then, the Lakers offered hope for their future. “For the young guys, it’s extremely important to see the results,” Bryant said. “When you pay attention to little details, good things happen. As they grow, they start trusting that more and more.” Despite the concern on last year’s NBA regular-season MVP, Lakers rookie point guard D’Angelo Russell had enough ice in his veins to top Warriors guard Stephen Curry in points (21-18), shooting clip (6 of 14, 6 of 20), 3-pointers (3 of 7, 1 of 10) and assists (5-4). Russell also added a career-high four steals. “When you first come into the league, you’re fans of people, As the season goes on, they become just another player,” Russell said. “He’s just another player out there for me.”Even if he nursed a strained tendon in his left knee that sidelined him for a game, Lakers guard Jordan Clarkson beat Warriors guard Klay Thompson in points (25-15), shooting clip (10 of 21, 7 of 20) and 3-pointers (4 of 6, 0 of 8). “If you want to get measured or get talked about being a young backcourt that has a chance to be very good, then you’ve got to measure up against these two guys,” Scott said. “I thought they took the challenge.” And despite posting 12 points on 4-of-14 shooting in 25 minutes while nursing a sore right shoulder, Kobe Bryant contributed in his last game against Golden State by providing endless tips from the bench. Bryant reported adding pointed feedback to the Lakers’ post players. Newsroom GuidelinesNews TipsContact UsReport an Error