Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Pamela SmithDTN Progressive Farmer Crops Technology EditorDECATUR, Ill. (DTN) — Waterhemp has just thumbed its nose at another group of herbicides.Waterhemp resistant to Group 15 herbicides (very long chain fatty acid inhibitors) has officially been found in Illinois research plots. It is the first dicot (broadleaf) weed in the world to outmaneuver herbicides within the Group 15 chemical family. While scientists aren’t sure how widespread the issue is, University of Illinois weed scientist Aaron Hager said the discovery is yet another warning to change weed management behaviors now.“Waterhemp has now shown the ability to resist seven different herbicide sites of action,” Hager said. “Farmers have been leaning heavily on the Group 15 herbicides across all crops as they battle resistant weeds. This is another example of how important it is to diversify weed control approaches to keep the effectiveness of this tool,” Hager said.Syngenta has been collaborating with Illinois scientists on their findings and providing important background information, confirmed Dane Bowers, Syngenta’s technical lead for herbicides, and Gordon Vail, Syngenta’s technical product lead on S-metolachlor, one of the Group 15 herbicides.S-metolachlor is the active ingredient commonly sold by Syngenta under the trade name Dual Magnum. It is also found as a component in many popular herbicide premixes.“We feel it is important as a manufacturer to alert farmers to these findings and work alongside weed scientists to keep these herbicides effective as long as possible,” said Vail. “The reality is not any one product or class of chemistry by itself is good enough. We need them all.”Go down through the sites of action commonly used in corn and soybean crops today and nearly all have had some level of resistance confirmed, Bowers added. “This is the age we live in. Resistance to a particular AI (active ingredient) or site of action doesn’t invalidate or devalue that active. It can still be extremely important across a wide geography to control other weed species,” he said.A CRACK IN ARMORWhat makes this discovery unique is the Group 15 herbicides have been fairly resilient. Worldwide, there are only five cases of grass weeds that have been confirmed resistant to very long chain fatty acid inhibitor (Group 15) herbicides. Most of those cases are in wheat and rice. The only confirmed Group 15 resistance in the United States had been in monocot (grass) in Idaho, Washington and Oregon.The Illinois discovery is the first confirmed case in the world in a dicot (broadleaf) weed species and the first case of Group 15 resistance known associated with corn and soybean production, according to the International Survey of Herbicide Resistance (www.weedscience.org).Hager said the resistant populations were found in McLean County and Champaign County. Both populations were already known to be resistant to multiple modes of sites of action — the McLean County population now resists five sites of action and the Champaign County waterhemp population has six-way resistance.Hager said both of the resistant populations demonstrate resistance to all Group 15 herbicides tested, which included S-metolachlor (Dual Magnum), dimethenamid-P (Outlook), pyroxasulfone (Zidua) and acetochlor (Harness, Warrant, Degree and others).“In field trials, we noticed that the level of control with metolachlor was drastically lower than that of acetochlor (Harness, Warrant, Degree and others),” he noted. “It has always been less, but this was dramatically different.”Further field trials and greenhouse studies showed resistance ratios that ranged from 4- to 64-fold among the Group 15 herbicides. However, Hager said that doesn’t mean simply switching to another herbicide within this site of action removes the threat of resistance in this weed species.“This is yet another example of how relying on chemicals alone to control waterhemp isn’t working anymore,” Hager added. “It also means we expect the length of residual control is going to continue to decline.” Group 15 herbicides are also important ingredients in pre-emergence residual programs.ROADS TO RESISTANCEWeed scientists have long warned that new herbicide miracles are not sitting in company pipelines. Bowers and Vail point to Syngenta’s Resistance Fighter program as an example of efforts to educate about the risk of continuously relying on the same weed-control tactics.However, they also agree that the message is deceptively simple in a world where nature keeps evolving. “While this particular example of resistance seems to be limited right now, it is evidence that we need to do things different going forward,” Vail said.“We cannot continue to rely totally on herbicides and expect to be sustainable long term,” he said. “I think in a lot of cases we’re doing the right things, but it is getting more and more difficult for these herbicides to be effective in some of these weed species.”Some key ways to delay herbicide resistance include crop rotation, combining effective herbicides with multiple sites of action and using full rates for all applications in the field. Letting pre-emergence residual products clean up fields early and using postemergence products as a backup, rather than the first line of defense, is also important, Bowers said. Cover crops, tillage and increasing crop competition through narrower row spacings are other tactics to improve odds.Bowers added that products such as atrazine and HPPD-inhibiting herbicides, for example, have had known resistance for years, but remain important tools. “While the discovery with Group 15 resistance in waterhemp is important, we think that addressing it early and being upfront about it is equally important.“There’s a lot more work to be done to find out how or why this has developed in Illinois,” Bowers said. “What we do know is it is critical to use full rates of products and employ multiple tactics to avoid resistance.”SCOUT AND LEARNHager said one clue that resistance may be evolving in the field is if you notice the residual control of the product isn’t holding up.Don’t assume the sprayer skipped if you see a small weed break. Pull a sample. Have it tested for resistance, he said.“Resistance doesn’t happen overnight,” Hager said. “We usually see small weed populations break first. Keeping those weeds from going to seed can go a long way toward helping keep these products useful. And yes, sometimes that means using a hoe.”For a full summary of the weeds and countries that have confirmed resistant to long chain fatty acids: http://www.weedscience.org/…Find more information on Syngenta’s Resistance Fighter program: http://www.syngenta-us.com/…Pamela Smith can be reached at [email protected] her on Twitter @PamSmithDTN(AG)© Copyright 2019 DTN/The Progressive Farmer. All rights reserved.
Sri Lanka are flying in veteran left arm swing bowler Chaminda Vaas and young off spinner Suraj Randiv as cover for the injured Angelo Mathews and Muttiah Muralitharan in their squad for the World Cup final against India in Mumbai on April 2.”They picked up a couple of niggles in the last match (semifinal against New Zealand on March 29 in Colombo). So to be on the safe side a couple of guys are flying in tonight. We will be giving those two guys (Mathews and Muralitharan) as long as possible to prove their fitness,” said Lanka coach Trevor Bayliss at a media conference on Thursday. Asked what was wrong with Mathews, Bayliss said “quadriceps muscle (injury).” Muralitharan has been struggling with a knee injury that he sustained in Mumbai against New Zealand in their last league game on March 18 as well as a hamstring problem but Bayliss is confident the world’s highest Test wicket-taker will play his final game before calling it a day from international cricket. “I think his chances are good. He bowled his 10 overs in the semi-final and came through that OK. He is obviously a bit stiff and sore. He has the character and the will to win the World Cup and I will not be surprised if he plays,” the Australian-born coach said. Both Vaas and Randiv are not part of the 15-member Sri Lanka Cup squad and all replacements due to injuries in the squad have to be approved by the International Cricket Council. The 37-year-old Vaas played in his last and 322nd ODI in August, 2008 against India at Colombo. The wily left arm bowler has taken 400 wickets while the 26-year-old Randiv has played 21 ODIs and grabbed 22 wickets. – With inputs from PTIadvertisement
Early in cricket’s never-ending and completely tiresome match-fixing scandal, sports writers with a sense of history turned their gaze to the infamous 1919 baseball rigging scandal in the US. That year the Chicago White Sox had lost the World Series to the underrated Cincinnati Reds and eight of its players,Early in cricket’s never-ending and completely tiresome match-fixing scandal, sports writers with a sense of history turned their gaze to the infamous 1919 baseball rigging scandal in the US. That year the Chicago White Sox had lost the World Series to the underrated Cincinnati Reds and eight of its players were disgraced and banned for life.The star batsman of the team, Joe Jackson-nicknamed “Shoeless” in a literal indication of the near-poverty that led him to temptation-is still seen in baseball annals as the great American fallen angel, the sort of anti-hero Kapil Dev or Mohammed Azharuddin would be if convicted.MD AZHARUDDINThe IT raid found * Evidence of three flats in Mumbai, undisclosed property in Hyderabad, lavish personal effects. The legal upshot The IT team has to go through Azhar’s returns for a decade to decide if he possesses black money. Only if so can the CBI ask if it’s a slush fund.Tortuous.KAPIL DEVThe IT raid found Five properties in Delhi, probable irregularities in coal business, “gifted” cars. Rs 5 lakh jewels in only one locker. The legal upshot Most Indian businessmen have a tax problem. So to try and link his wealth to fixing will require a process similar to Azhar’s. Section 420 looks some distance away.AJAY JADEJAThe IT raid foundThree properties in Delhi, suspicions of more. Name appeared in abookie-business partner’s records. The legal upshot That his nameappears in Hiren Hathi’s diary is not enough.The hawala case precedentis there. Besides knowing shady characters is per se not a crime.NAVJOT SIDHUThe IT raid found Unexplained property. A VDIS declaration of Rs 81 lakh.Plus “gifts” from admirers amounting to Rs 65 lakh. The legal upshotPrima facie the IT-CBI team may be able to ask some sticky questions tothis man. Nevertheless, it has to be proven that his donors were bookies bribing him.NIKHIL CHOPRAThe IT raid found Some inexplicable property papers and foreign exchange. His biggest”crime” seems being Mukesh Gupta’s neighbour. The legal upshot Like anumber of Delhi cricketers, seems to have, unwittingly or not, met a lot of bookies. But there is no direct link of “gift” leading tounderperformance. Can’t be held responsible for neighbours. That final point is crucial for the parallels between baseball’s year of darkness-it was the culmination of betting syndicates’ insidious influence on the game and actually led to a purge-and cricket’s moment of infamy are striking. The most marked similarity relates to the legality of the match-fixing case. When the baseball commissioner punished the guilty players, he did so “regardless of the verdict of juries” and on the day after they were acquitted by the court.advertisementThe reasons for their acquittal sound suspiciously familiar. Some players initially confessed and then retracted their confession. Important documents “disappeared” mid-trial. Nobody was sure precisely which law was infringed in fixing a baseball game. Defendants such as Jackson kept changing their minds, stating they had heard rumours of fixing, had refused offers, had accepted money without meaning to throw matches.Eight decades later Hansie Cronje read from an identical script. Eight decades later the CBI-despite the great drama of the Income-Tax (IT) Department’s “Operation Gentleman”-is on as sticky a legal wicket as the Ohio judicial system was in 1919. In sum, India’s premier investigators admit that nailing the cricketers on the charge of match fixing is well nigh impossible.That is why they are hoping that the trauma of an IT raid and interrogation and sheer public opprobrium will lead to some Indian cricketer cracking up and spilling the beans. After all, it was psychological pressure and that wily being called conscience that did in Cronje and his teammates.Yet, as a cynical Delhi lawyer who represents a senior cricket official snorts, “South Africa ke cricketer bewakoof hain. Hamare cricketer bewakoof nahin (The South African cricketers are fools. Our cricketers are not).” So expect nothing close to the truth-with oath, without oath, in spite of oath. The CBI’s last hope, then, is a slender one.That, however, is getting ahead of the story. For a start, top lawyers can’t even agree if a plain case of cheating under Section 420 can be registered against the cricketers for match-fixing and if so who the complainant should be.Mumbai lawyer Mahesh Jethmalani says, “Any paying spectator can complain that he was made to part with property (ticket fees) to see an unfair match.” While Section 420 is applicable and the matter could even go to court, Jethmalani, Azharuddin’s lawyer, says, “it will be virtually impossible to prove” and obtain a conviction.R.K. Anand, one of Delhi’s leading criminal lawyers, is simple in his verdict: “There is no case.” His logic is that under Section 420 “Whoever cheats and thereby dishonestly induces the person deceived to deliver any property to any person … shall be punished with imprisonment which may extend to seven years”spectators cannot file a complaint because the cricketers have not “induced” them to pay to see the match. The only possible aggrieved party is the BCCI, which is committed to paying cricketers a set fee for an optimum performance. Even here, argues Anand, “building a case under section 420 is very far-fetched”.Ashok Arora, another lawyer in the capital, is far more optimistic. “A case under Section 420,” he says, “is absolutely on.” The spectator has paid to see a fair fixture and can be the complainant. “It is a cognisable offence and the police will be forced to investigate.” When it comes to securing a “guilty” verdict, however, Arora is less certain. While “tapes of conversations and the like are evidence on record and admissible if not doctored and so authenticated”, they need to be corroborated.advertisementArora should understand the importance of “corroborative evidence”, a phrase much used in the hawala case, in which he was a defending lawyer and which came back as a whipping memory when, after the IT raids, there was talk of “incriminating diaries”. Apparently, at the homes of certain bookies diaries and books were found with amounts marked against names of cricketers. Hiren Hathi of Ahmedabad, for instance, had-to quote a tax offi-ciala diary seized “with the names of Ajay Jadeja and Kapil Dev written against sums of money”.The chargesheet in the hawala case was filed in 1996 on exactly such a flimsy basis-entries in the diaries of the Jain brothers, showing sums of money against the names of politicians to whom they had allegedly been paid. The case was thrown out of court and the hawala accused walked out unblemished. Now legal circles are wondering if the cricket swindle will be hawala II.Anyhow, with hope in its heart and prayer on its lips, CBI is looking at three stages to a denouement-or mirage.Step I: First the agency has to establish that there are bookies who run a gambling grey market in India and accept bets on cricket. This is relatively simple. Some 100 bookies have been questioned by the CBI since the beginning of May-25-odd are still absconding.Most of the bookies questioned have admitted accepting cricket-related bets-the menu of betting options actually ranges from horse racing to speculation on who will read the evening news on television. Less than 20 bookies have admitted to “links” with cricketers. Eight Indian players figure prominently on this list, six are Delhi-based-including a former Indian captain who is a compulsive punter and even bets while teeing of f at the Delhi Golf Club-and the other two are from Mumbai and Hyderabad.Step II: This involves proving that cricketers were in touch with bookies on match days and kept tabs on odds. The CBI is tentatively optimistic here, particularly due to the mobile phone records of cricketers and big bookies. These indicate regular conversations between the Indian dressing room and the betting nodal rooms as it were.advertisementHowever, all this will lead to is a rough conclusion that Indian cricketers were perhaps punters and could be prosecuted under the Gambling Act (maximum punishment: Rs 500 fine). It will not establish rigging.Step III: The CBI could register a case against a bookie or a player under Section 420 after establishing a direct link between underperformance in a match and monetary consideration. This is where the danger gong is sounded. How do you make clear the channel by which bookies paid corrupt cricketers? Bank deposits? Hawala? Lifetime achievement awards from rich NRIs?Plaintiff’s PointDefendant’s CounterThe CBI’s possible case And the cricketers’ likely answerThey’re cheats: Register cases under Section 420, accusing fixers of cheating spectators of a fair game.Diary items: Names of cricketers have been found against sums of money in bookies’ diaries.Take a gamble: Charge cricketers under the Gambling Act by accusing them of links with bookies.Liar, liar: Invoke sections such as 191 and 193, charge cricketers with hiding or fabricating evidence.Tax evasion trick: The IT raids reveal huge assets, perhaps the result of ill-gotten, fixing-time gains.The King route: Set up a South Africa-type commission, appeal to cricketers to come clean.Who’ve we cheated?: Section 420 requires “inducement” of property (money) from victim. Sticky point.Remember hawala: The hawala case collapsed because diary entries alone were insufficient evidence.Damp squib: It still doesn’t prove match-fixing. Besides the Gambling Act entails only a Rs 500 fine.Truth or dare: Will only work if you prove they’ve lied under oath. Besides real fixers may still get away.Penalty corner: Charge the usual tax penalty and leave us alone. Every second Indian evades taxes anyway.Royal salute: Indian player-fixers are too shrewd to let a minor being like a conscience prick them. In Delhi, one cricketer was gifted a house worth Rs 50 lakh by a noted bookie. The many expensive gifts cricketers receive from overseas “fans” are sometimes used as a conduit to “pay cricketers for services rendered”. The point is: can you link these with the tanking of a specific match? Nishit Dhruva, senior advocate, Bombay High Court, says, “For the prosecution to prove the linkage will be very difficult.”The CBI certainly isn’t confident. As an officer says, even the IT raids haven’t really helped because a particular cricketer’s wealth will have to be correlated with a chosen bookie’s allegation of payment at a given time. Since bribes are rarely paid by crossed cheques that are instantly deposited, this logic has a snowball’s chance in hell of working.It is for reasons such as these that the CBI privately admits it is likely to end its investigations in a couple of months without filing a chargesheet and submit a report explaining its limitations to the Government-and cricket will presumably go back into its complacent slumber. No wonder Adhik Shirodkar, a top Mumbai lawyer, says, “This is no way to go about fixing the fixers. Even if you begin a criminal trial, it will take 10 years.”Shirodkar recommends a BCCI-imposed ban on grounds of “reasonable suspicion”. Arora has a slightly different strategy. If you analyse the secretly recorded Manoj Prabhakar tapes, he says, the testimony offered by some cricketers and officials before the Justice Y.V. Chandrachud Commission and then before the CBI and, should trial begin, before the court, you are likely to find “huge contradictions”.Obviously some people are saying one thing in private and another in public, to protect their friends in a conspiracy of silence, even if they themselves are not guilty. Arora proposes that they be charged under Sections 191 and 193 for giving false evidence and “sent to jail to put the fear of God into others”. Like a crafty bowler, cricket’s cleansing agents may have to resort to a legal googly. Bowling a tidy length doesn’t seem to be getting them anywhere.-with V. Shankar Aiyar in Mumbai
Cheteshwar Pujara registered his second century of the series while Ajinkya Rahane also notched up a hundred as two of India’s most dependable batsmen laid the foundation for a massive first innings total in the second test against Sri Lanka on Thursday. (SCORECARD)Pujara’s 50th test turned out to be an eventful one as India’s number three nearly perished in the slip early in his innings and ran out partner KL Rahul before making amends with his burgeoning 211-run stand with Rahane.Pujara, who also completed 4,000 test runs in the process, was batting on 128 at stumps, his 13th test century containing 10 boundaries and a pulled six off debutant spinner Malinda Pushpakumara.Rahane, who survived a couple of reviews, hit 12 boundaries in his fluent 103 not out, as India utterly dominated the opening day of the contest to reach 344 for three.Alarmingly for Sri Lanka, still smarting from their comprehensive defeat in the series opener in Galle, lone frontline paceman Nuwan Pradeep left the field in the final session clutching his left hamstring.India got off to a brisk start after skipper Virat Kohli opted to bat on a dry surface with Rahul, who missed India’s victory in Galle with high-fever, and Shikhar Dhawan scoring freely against a spin-heavy Sri Lankan attack.Dhawan clobbered Rangana Herath for a six in the spinner’s first over and also hit five boundaries in his brisk 35 before Dilruwan Perera trapped him leg-before.Rahul was on 19 when the right-hander was given out leg-before to Dimuth Karunaratne but the batsman used review to successfully overturn the decision and went on to make his sixth successive test half-century.advertisementRahul fell on 57 after a horrible mix-up with Pujara and was soon joined by Kohli in the pavilion as India slumped to 133-3.Pujara, who struck 153 in Galle, and Rahane ensured Sri Lanka did not get any momentum, however.Renowned for their impeccable temperament, the right-handed duo deftly used the crease to punish the Sri Lankan bowlers who endured a wicketless final session.Sri Lanka welcomed back skipper Dinesh Chandimal, who missed the Galle test with pneumonia, and effected three changes overall in their bid to level the three-match series against the top ranked Indian team.